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Type 2 Diabetes Management Guidelines

Complications of diabetes

  • Risk factors for the development of diabetic complications
  • Onset of diabetes at a young age
  • Advancing age
  • Long duration of diabetes
  • Suboptimal glycaemic control
  • Pre-existing complications or comorbidities e.g. established cardiovascular disease, microalbuminura and/or reduced eGFR
  • Māori or Pacific people ethnicity
  • Non-European ethnicity
  • Lower socioeconomic status
  • Hypertension
  • Dyslipidaemia
  • Smoking
  • Obesity
  • Reduced adherence or attendance
  • Common associated comorbidities with diabetes
  • Recurrent skin and genitourinary infections
  • Dental and periodontal disease
  • Other features of metabolic syndrome e.g. gout, polycystic ovarian syndrome
  • Mental health e.g. depression, dementia and disordered eating
  • Cardiac e.g. congestive heart failure and atrial fibrillation
  • Musculoskeletal e.g. frozen shoulder and myopathy
  • Dermatological e.g. diabetic dermopathy and acanthosis nigricans
  • Gastrointestinal e.g. fatty liver disease and diarrhea
  • Solid cancers e.g. breast, bowel, lung, pancreas, ovarian cancers etc.